The Macaroni Penguin is the second-largest of the crested penguins, with a body length of approximately 70-75 cm and a body mass of approximately 4.5-7.0 kg. Males are larger than females in all body dimensions, and have a greater mass for most of the year. The Macaroni Penguin is black above and white below, with a black face and throat and bright golden-orange and black crest feathers above the eyes (the crest feathers meet on the forehead, as in Royal Penguins). The bill is red-orange-brown in colour and the eyes dark red-brown. Juveniles lack the well developed crest feathers of the adults, and may also have ashy-grey colouring on the throat (compared with the black throat of the adults).
Macaroni Penguin, Royal Penguin |
Government evidence of impact of climate change:
IUCN Red List Assessment, Eudyptes chrysolophus
The primary drivers of declines are uncertain but could include The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Eudyptes chrysolophus published in 2020. https dx.doi.org 10.2305 IUCN.UK.2020 3.RLTS.T22697793A184720991.en climatic variation; at sea overwinter foraging and competition for food from Antarctic fur seals.
Systems Terrestrial; Marine Threats (see Appendix for additional information) Climate change is an important potential candidate for explaining recent declines.
Large scale environmental changes; particularly those related to sea temperatures could be contributing to habitat loss; indirect ecosystem effects; direct species mortality and reduced reproductive success; but the nature and level of impacts remain unclear as there may be divergent responses in different populations climate was found to be have potentially positive effects in the short to medium term for the population studied at Bird Island; South Georgia; whereas changes to predation dynamics appear to be an important factor driving declines (Horswill et al. 2014; 2016).
Ecological effects of climate change on little penguins Eudyptula minor and the potential economic impact on tourism.