It is a fairly large, bulky petrel, 45 to 50 cm (18–20 in) long with a wingspan of 110 to 120 cm (43–47 in). The male has an average weight of 795 g (28.0 oz) while the smaller female weighs around 740 g (26 oz). These weights increase to 1,005 and 932 g (35.5 and 32.9 oz) at the start of a shift incubating the eggs. The male has a wing length of 34 cm (13 in), bill length of 44.6 mm (1.76 in), tarsus length of 52.1 mm (2.05 in) and tail length of 12.4 cm (4.88 in). The female has a wing length of 33.9 cm (13.3 in), bill length of 43 mm (1.69 in), tarsus length of 51.5 mm (2.03 in) and tail length of 12.1 cm (4.8 in). The bird flies with a mixture of shallow flaps and long glides, often looking down to scan the water. The wings are fairly broad and rounded and are held stiff. The plumage is mainly pale silvery-grey above and white below. The head is white with a pale grey crown. The wingtips are blackish with a large white patch and the wings have a dark rear edge. The legs and feet are pale blue. The bill is pink with a black tip and dark bluish naricorns. First-year birds have a more slender bill than the adults. It is usually silent but has loud, cackling calls which are uttered at the nest or in feeding flocks. Courting birds produce soft droning and guttural croaking calls.
Southern Fulmar |
Government evidence of impact of climate change:
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IUCN Red List Assessment, Fulmarus glacialoides
Systems Terrestrial; Marine Threats (see Appendix for additional information) Climate change is already having a measurable effect on this species; causing later breeding and lowered reproductive output due to increased variability in the climate regime within the species range; with future impacts predicted to be greater (Carboneras et al. 2018).
Systems Terrestrial; Marine Threats (see Appendix for additional information) Delayed breeding and lowered reproductive output have already been noted as responses to increased variability in the climate regime; and future impacts are predicted to be greater (Carboneras et al. 2018).