The Sunset Frog is a black or very dark grey frog growing to 35 mm. It has bright reddish-orange hands and feet as well as orange patches below the anus and margins to jaws. It has a bright orange throat, anterior chest and cloacal glands. The belly has small bright blue spots.
Sunset Frog |
Status: Vulnerable on the EPBC Act list
Government evidence of impact of climate change:
Australian Government, Conservation Advice, Spicospina flammocaerulea
The most plausible threats; including habitat disturbance particularly due to feral pigs; a drying climate and wildfire; could affect all individuals sites within each land tenure in the same time frame. (b) It is inferred; due to the ongoing impact of feral pigs; a drying climate and wildfire on peat swamps; that there will be a continuing decline in (iii) area; extent and or quality of habitat.
No decline present and future burn programming and other in habitat condition disturbance activities Collection due to novelty value of noticed during colouration and apparent rarity past; visit. present and future Chytridiomycosis infection Future Climate change Present and future Site 2 Boronia Rd National 0.06 km2 Very good condition See Threats for Site 1 Pig control 1 Park but pig disturbance Chytrid hygiene protocol has had an impact.
If the EOO is decreasing declining; is it continuing Yes No Unknown Is the continuing decline observed; Inferred as above; and projected due to the effects of climate change on estimated; inferred or projected the moist peat swamp habitat drying and acidification.
The change is suspected to continue due to the current and future threats habitat loss and decline; and the impact of climate change on the peat swamps; drying; altered hydrology and acidification.
Therefore certain fire events (i.e. large Fires also increase the risk of weed invasion and scale summer fires); exacerbated by climate change; could be a damage by feral pigs increases in severity major threat. following fire; thereby causing a decline in habitat The species is reliant on peat based systems.
Climate change Entire Severe Rainfall decreases and temperature increases in the southwest of Future WA have been observed since the 1970s.
Climate change and the As the sunset frog is found in permanently associated biological; ecological and physical pressures are likely to inundated riparian peat swamp habitat; the lead to a loss of canopy continuity; increased fire intensity and hydrological changes; drying and acidification; as a frequency; and a drying out of previously wet habitats; including result of climate change are likely to negatively peat swamps. impact on the species.
While genetic modelling suggests that the species has some ability to cope with a drying climate; it suspected that the species will be susceptible to climate change due to their breeding biology (not explosive breeders); a loss of their habitat due to a drying climate; and an inability to have shift towards coastal areas due to the large areas of agricultural land that have cleared suitable habitat (Edwards and Roberts; 2011).
As the species is reliant on peat based systems; if the peat substrate is impacted by wildfire removing the peat; the result may be formation of acid sulphate soils that can cause irreversible damage to the habitat.
See Appendix 1 for survey details and estimates of the number of calling males. surveys undertaken for the species 4.3 Research (Provide details) Has the species been well researched Yes No Partially Unknown What research has been or is Taxonomy and habitat described by Roberts et. al. (1997) being conducted Genetic work on Australian frog genera by Read et. al. (2001) Threat of fire on frogs in south west WA by Bamford Roberts (2003) Breeding biology (embryonic larval development) described by Dziminski Anstis (2004) Frog ecology in modified Australia landscapes by Hazell (2003) Genetic diversity and biogeographic history by Edwards Roberts (2011) What are the knowledge gaps Biological and ecological information for the species Effects of environmental parameters Effects of threatening processes Research recommendations As per knowledge gaps above 4.4 Monitoring (Provide details) Is the species being monitored; Yes.
Include abiotic and biotic causes; impact on whole of threat to the future) human related e.g. exploitation; and biological species or specific conservation of characteristics of the species e.g. low genetic subpopulations) the species) diversity) Inappropriate fire regimes and wild fire Entire; particularly Unknown Anecdotal evidence suggests that breeding can be stimulated by Past; present and sites within the removal of dense vegetation through natural disturbances such future While the species is found in permanently conservation estate as fire.
If the peat substrate quality in the long term. is impacted by fire removing the peat; the result may be formation of acid sulphate soils that can cause irreversible damage.
Nornalup National 0.06 km2 Drying habitat and See Threats for Site 1 Pig control.